The competitiveness of products on the world grain market depends on its quality and compliance with generally accepted standards. Inspection, analysis and assignment of a certain crop classification are mandatory actions before processing and selling wheat, and the obtained results affect the pricing and the ability to export crops.
GROUPS OF WHEAT AND THEIR INDICATORS
Wheat has a generally accepted classification, which divides the grain, according to its quality, into several groups:
Group “A” includes the first three classes. It includes valuable varieties that are used to produce top quality flour and bakery products. The harvest of group “A” is an export product.
Group “B” includes grains 4 and 5 classes. These are solid varieties from which pasta and cereals are made. In order to improve the quality of the products, at its manufacturing, the wheat of groups “A” and “B” are mixing. That’s the way to increase the percentage of gluten and protein in its composition.
Grains rated to class 6 are classified as feed type. On its basis is produced compound feedstuff for animals and birds.
Products assign a certain class, taking into account several indicators:
- the appearance of the grain;
- the percentage of gluten and its level of quality;
- the presence of sprout grains and various impurities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAIN WHEAT INDICATORS
Wheat indicators are influenced by two groups of causes. The first includes factors that do not depend on human exposure. These are the features of the weather in the season, the period and the correctness of the passage through the stages of the formation and maturation of the plant.
The second group includes factors that are formed as a result of human activity. This includes the use of fertilizers, protective measures against parasites, care for the grain, its storage.
Wheat water-core or powderiness is its consistency, which I can be determined by breaking or cutting the grain. If the product is characterized by friability and whitish tint – it has a low level of powderiness. Wheat, which belongs to the first class, must have a water-core content of 70%.
The second important characteristic of wheat is the gluten indicator. Its mass fraction affects the taste quality of products and the ability to use grain for baking purposes.
The content and quality of gluten is determined by laboratory research. Choose flour of a specific fraction and knead the dough: 25 g of flour to 14 mg of water. A mixture let to simmer on low heat for 25 minutes, achieving the swelling of gluten proteins. After, the gluten gets washed out, but at a certain temperature – 18 ° С + -2 ° С. Due to this, starch and other substances are getting removed, and only the protein remains in the dough. It becomes a gelatinous mass, which contains glutenin and gliadin. The mixture is dried, kneaded to remove excess moisture and weighed. The resulting mass is compared to the initial weight of the flour.
Quality is considered to be bright gluten with a grayish or yellowish tinge. Dark color occurs if, during the ripening process, the grain was treated with harmful substances or it was affected during drying or storage.
High-quality wheat contains 11-17% protein. At low and high rates, the taste and baking properties of products are deteriorate.
The protein and gluten content depends on the amount of nitrogen that the grain receives when it is ripening.
In order for wheat indicators to meet the norm, it is important to adhere to the rules of cultivation as well as care for the crop. It should be dried at a certain temperature, taking into account the moisture content of the grain.
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